History of Georgia

The history of Georgia is an infinite train of rises and falls, continuous wars, revolutions, formation and decline of developed civilizations. The area between the Black and the Caspian seas, one of the great ways from Asia to Europe , was always a tidbit for aggressors throughout centuries. Georgia was always involved in the sphere of­ economic and strategic interests of large states of the world which constantly waged wars among themselves. And although Georgia is relatively young which appeared on the map of the world only in the 10 th century its history started long before the political redivision of the world.


The first traces of a primitive man on the territory of Georgia are dated the mid-paleolith when there was a large centre of agriculture there.

First States

The history of Georgian statehood begins with emergence of Colchis and Iberian kingdoms. Colchis or West Georgian kingdom was formed approximately in the 6 th century BC by means of resettlement of Assyrian tribes.

Struggle for Domination in Georgia

Until the 1 st century AD the territory of modern Georgia passed from one great empire to another including Alexander the Great Empire.

Beginning and Prospering of Centralized State

In the 10 th century independent princedoms united to resist outside enemies’ attacks. Tsar Bagrat III united eastern and western parts of Georgia in a single state. It reached its greatest prosperity in the 12 th century under the rule of Tsar David the Builder who relieved the country from Turkish oppression.


In the 13 th century Mongol-Tatars invaded the country. In the beginning of the 15 th century the ruined country could not recover from Timur’s armies invasion and save its integrity.

Russian Protectorate

Russian Empire agreed to help Georgia . The Empress Catherine II sent the armies there and by the 1870s Russian armies completely relieved Georgia of Turkish presence.

The Soviet Period

In 1918 Georgia gained its independence again.

Independent Georgia

Zviad Gamsakhurdia became the president of independent Georgia . However, in December 1991 there began the struggle between the supporters of the president and opposition.

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